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Karabakh: etymology, territory and borders

Karabakh is one of the ancient regions of Azerbaijan. The name of this inseparable part of Azerbaijan consists of two different Azerbaijani words: "gara" (black) and "bag" (garden). The combination of these two words is as ancient as the nation of Azerbaijan. The association of these two combined words with the definite part of Azerbaijan in every part of the world is an oracle. The word Karabakh given by the Azerbaijan nation to a part of their native lands was used for the first time 1,300 years ago (in the 7th century)!?. At first, Karabakh was used as a historical-geographical definition, but it later transformed to cover a larger geographical area. By the way, this aspect is very typical for Azerbaijan: Nakhchivan city - Nakhchivan region, Sheki city - Shaki region, Ganja city - Ganja region, Lenkoran city- Lenkoran region and etc. 
The history of the formation of Karabakh as a name of one particular region, provides a better scientific explanation for its etymology. Because the word "gara" has other meanings in Azerbaijani language (also in other Turkic languages) as well - such as "sih" (dense), "galin" (thick), "boyuk" (big, large), "tund" (strong), and others. From this point of view the term Karabakh gets such meanings as "gara bag" (dark garden), that is "boyuk bag" (a large garden), "six bag" (a dense garden), "galin bag" (a thick garden), "safali bag" (a picturesque garden) and others. Thus, the word "Karabakh" belongs to Azerbaijani people as Karabakh does itself. 
When Karabakh is a topic of discussions, the question of the location of Karabakh arises at first. What part of Azerbaijan does include Karabakh? The answer to this question of a high importance, and it is necessary to understand the problem of "Nagorny Karabakh" produced by the Armenians. Let us address ourselves to the origins in order to answer the question. When Karabakh khanate of Azerbaijan included this territory its regent Mirza Jamal Javanshir in consideration of this question in his work the "History of Karabakh" wrote: "According to the ancient historical books the frontiers of Karabakh are: from the south the river Araz - from Hudapharin Bridge to Sinig Bridge. At present the population of Gazah, Shamseddin and Demerchi-Hesenly lives near this bridge and Russian Tatars call it using the Russian term Krasniy Most that is the Red Bridge. From the east - the Kur River, which flows into the Araz River in Javad village and flows into the Caspian Sea. From the north - the Goran River, which flows from the Yelizavetpol frontier of Karabakh to the Kur Riverr, crosses it in many parts and riches the Araz River. From the west - the high mountains of Karabakh called Kusbek, Salvarti, Erikli. 
Such a detailed description of the territory and frontiers of Karabakh at the first stages of Russian occupation and colonization are explained by the following factors: 1) this fact is described by an official person directly connected with the government of Karabakh, in other words, this fact is reflected in an official document composed by an official representative of Russia; 2) on the other hand this fact is not only based at practices and realities, but it also finds reflection in the references. It is not occasional that ancient books are used to prove the position of Mirza Jamal. There was a general definition of Karabakh, which was not used only for Nagorny Karabakh, but for both mountainous and plain parts. In other words, the word combination of "Daglig Garabag"(Mountainous Karabakh) is a product of the subsequent periods, the name given to the one of the part of Karabakh as a result of separatist intentions. Even an ordinary logic proves this fact: If there is "Daglig Garabag" then there must be flat or low-lying Karabakh too! The reality is that there are both Nagorny Karabakh and Low-lying Karabakh (that is flat Karabakh) in Azerbaijan! And always both low-lying (flat) and Daglig (mountainous) Karabakh during all historical periods were the motherland of one nation - the nation of Azerbaijan, the nation who has in its language the words "gara" and "bag"! Hundreds of the most ancient and rarest models of folklore, which are the brilliant musical pearls of the nation of Azerbaijan, were created in Karabakh and are related to Karabakh.

The beginning of the conflict

The Armenia`s claims on Azerbaijani lands, as well as the Upper Karabakh formed pars of its strategy of the establishment of the Great Armenia. Therefore, Armenia always tried to make use of favorable conditions to achieve their goals. When pro-Armenian M.S.Gorbachyov was elected the head of USSR in 1985, Armenians intensified their activity again. 
The support and protection of the Soviet government to armed Armenian separatists was coming to light during that period. In order to implement his mean plans connected with the autonomous province of Nagorno Karabakh, Mikhail Gorbachev distanced the most important obstacle - Heydar Aliyev - from the political bureau. After that Armenian academician A.Aganbekyan of Gorbachov`s grouping, reported that he had made a proposal to the Soviet leadership concerning the Upper Karabakh and expressed hope that the problem will find its solution in the conditions of democracy and reconstruction. 
Once underground Armenian Committee for Karabakh and its terrorist organization Krunk (Crane) in the Autonomous District of Upper Karabakh started operating openly and the movement Miatsum movement was formed at that time. This movement was backed by Armenia, Autonomous District of Upper Karabakh, Moscow leadership and the potential of USSR and world Armenians. The events acquired more aggressive form in 1988. The wave of meetings of separatists and Armenian nationalists captured Yerevan and Stepanakert in February. 
The session of the council of Autonomous Upper Karabakh District appealed to the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan SSR for consideration of the status of the district February 20. 
This fact testified that Armenians had changed their tactics from that of November 1945. They managed to create an incorrect view of the world community on Upper Karabakh through intensive propaganda and strong Armenian Diaspora in foreign countries. Therefore, they started to hold propaganda openly. 
The leadership of Azerbaijan and its community was unprepared for the new tactics of Armenian separatists and their supporters. The murder of two young Azerbaijanis, wounding of 19 people by Armenian separatists in Askeran February 20, resulted in the preparation of policy against the plans of Armenians. In late February the special service bodies and organs of State Security of SSSR committed a tragedy in the big industrial city of Azerbaijan-Sumgayit. 
The causes of Sumgayit tragedy soon came to light. That step targeted Azerbaijanis living in Armenian and was used to part Upper Karabakh from the Soviet Azerbaijan. "4 residents of Mehmandar village of Azerbaijan south to Yerevan were killed on March 10. Over 100 houses were destroyed and residents were evicted from the Azerbaijani villages of Ararat region on March 25. In mid March Armenians again attacked Azerbaijani villages near Yerevan.". The barbarism of Armenians against Azerbaijanis rose again. 
In period of excavation of Armenian separatist`s barbarism the indifference of the Communist party of Soviet Union to the real assessment of the state of the Central Committee and Soviet leadership also became evident. The resolution "On measures for intensification of socioeconomic development of the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1988-1995" was a bid to cover up the separatist nature of the issue. This step inspirited Armenian separatists and even increased their aggression. 
The leadership of Azerbaijan, beginning with A.Vezirov, submissive to Moscow, stood on the position of compromises to betrayers and aggressors of its people. Finally, Moscow undertook one more step to part the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh from the Azerbaijan SSR: the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council approved a resolution "On special form of government in the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh" on January 12, 1989. 
The aim was obvious: The Special Governing Committee, established in the Autonomous Upper Karabakh Province was to provide for the delivery of Upper Karabakh to Armenia. However, as a result of a democratic struggle of Azerbaijani people aware of that, the Special Governing Committee was abolished on November 28. Yet the structure was replaced by a new one-the Organizational Committee. Armenia, making use of it, carried out an anti-constitutional decision on annexation of Upper Karabakh to Armenia on December 1. 
That was the open violation of the territorial integrity of the Soviet Azerbaijan. As expected, Moscow shut its eyes to the fact of this violent intervention, thus deteriorating the situation. The leadership of USSR, led by Gorbachov, undertook one more cruel step against Azerbaijan. Baku was chosen the main target. The Soviet Union violating the constitutional responsibilities before the people, bringing large troops, armed with up-date techniques and guns, committed bloodshed in Baku on the night of January 20, 1990. 
Armenian soldiers and militants also took an active part in committing the Baku tragedy. However, the tragedy of January 20 could not undermine the control of Azerbaijan it even strengthened the struggle of the people for the independence and territorial integrity. The next day Heydar Aliyev came to the Azerbaijan's representation in Moscow, exposed the criminal actions of Soviet leadership and expressed his support for the justice Salvation struggle of Azerbaijani people. The Supreme Council of the Soviet Azerbaijan declared the restoration of the state independence on August 30, 1991 and approved the Constitutional act on the national independence on October 18. 
Armenian separatists of Upper Karabakh took advantage of the situation and continued creating political structures. They declared the establishment of a puppet body named The Upper Karabakh Republic in September of 1991. The Azerbaijan Republic did not accept this structure and the status of the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh was abolished on November 26. 
The collapse of USSR in late 1991 was followed by the change in the geopolitical situation on post-Soviet area. Armenian in fact declared an open and unfair war against Azerbaijan. Armenian military troops, violating the borders of Azerbaijan, entered Karabakh and conjointly with Armenian separatists of Upper Karabakh occupied Azeri lands.

Khojali genocide - the tragedy of the 20th century

 

"The Khojali genocide with its inconceivable cruelty and inhuman punitive methods, was completely targeted against the people of Azerbaijan and represents a barbarian act in the history of humankind. At the same time, this genocide was a historical crime against humanity."
 

Heydar Aliyev



The Khojali genocide is one of the most terrible and tragic pages of Azerbaijan history. Azerbaijan`s national leader Heydar Aliyev said in his speech addressed to the nation of Azerbaijan on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of Khojali genocide: "This merciless and cruel genocide was the most dreadful mass terror act in the history of humankind." 
It should be mentioned that Azerbaijan has endured ethnic cleansing and genocide by Armenian nationalist-chauvinists for 200 years. The people of Azerbaijan were deported from their historical lands and became refugees and internally displaced persons because of Armenian occupation. Azerbaijanis were also forced from their historical lands during the Soviet period. 150,000 Azerbaijanis were deported from Armenia and placed in the Kur-Araz plain from1948-1953. 250,000 Azerbaijanis were forced from their historical territories in 1988 and Armenia became a mono-ethnical state. The Nagorny Karabakh events, which began in 1988 along with continuous efforts to implement the Armenian desire of building a state from sea to sea, led to the destruction of towns and villages, murder of thousands of innocent people, as well as the exile of hundreds of thousands of Azerbaijanis from their native lands. 
The Armenian government wanted to annex Nagorny Karabakh despite international legal norms and demonstrates their readiness to resort to any kind of crime and barbarism for the sake of its ideology. The Khojali genocide - the tragedy of the 20th century - was a result of this aggressive and criminal policy. This tragedy, which took place in the 20th century was one of the most serious crimes not only against the people of Azerbaijan, but humanity as a whole. The Khojali genocide is comparable to the genocides in Khatin, Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Songmi. 
What was Armenian`s purpose in Khojali? On one hand that was the liquidation of the strategic hindrance in the form of Azerbaijani residents of the mountainous part of Nagorny Kharabakh. On the other hand that was the razing of Khojali to the ground. Because Khojali was an inhabited place, which reflected the history and traditions of Azerbaijan since the ancient times. This distinct culture is classified as Khojali-Gadabay in the Azerbaijani history. Cromlechs, dolmens, Cyclops, tumuluses of Khojali, as well as different housing wares are the patterns of material culture that reflect the dynamics of social development. The destruction of all these material culture monuments and Khojali graveyard - one of the most ancient cemeteries in history - after the Armenian occupation is are obvious examples of Armenian barbarism and aggression against the world culture. 
Armenian millitary forces commited genocides in the town of Khojali with the population of 7 thousand people on februrary 26 1992. There were 3 thousand people in the town at the time of Armenian millitary forces attack. As most part of the population had to leave town during 4 months blockade. 613 people were killed, 1000 peaceful people of different age became invalid during Khojali genocide. 106 women, 63 children, 70 old men were killed. 8 families were completely annihilated, 130 children lost one parents, while 25 both of them. 1275 peace residents were taken hostages, the fate of 150 of them is still unknown. 
All these were commited by Armeninan militaries with special mercilessness and inconceivable barbarism. 2nd battalion of 366th regiment under the command of Major Oganyan Seyran Mushegovich ("defence minister" of illegal regime in Nagorny Karabakh at present time), 3rd battalion under the command of Yevgeniy Nabokhin, staff chief of 1st battalion Chitchyan Valeriy and more than 50 officers and ensigns, serving in regiment took part in the attack. ("From the investigation materials concerning Khojali occupation"). 
A part of town residents, attempted to flee, were killed by Armeninans, waiting in the ambulshes. According to the Russian remidial centre "Мемориал", 200 corpses had been brought from Jodjali to Agdam for 4 days, tens of humiliation facts has been discovered on them. 181 corpses (130 men and 51 women) were made forensic medical examination in Aghdam. According to the examination 151 persons dead in result of bullet wound, 20 - missile wound, 10 people were killed with blunt instrument. Remidial centre discovered fact of scalping of alive man. 
Episodes of Khojali genocide terrify people. Antiga, the resident of Khojali, was burned alive because she did not say "these places are part of Great Armenia". Khojali resident Sariya Talibova told: "heads of 4 meskhetis and 3 Azeris were cut off over Armenian grave. Then they extracted eyes of 2 Azeris". 
Armenians outraged upon survors. They scalped, cut people`s head and other organs off, extracted eyes of children, choped stomaches of pregnant women. Forbidden bullets of 5,45 calibre and chemical weapons were used in Khojali during the attack. All these facts prove that Armenia commited genocide against civil people, violating Geneva convention protokhol concerning war rules. 
Khojali genocide teriified jurnalist and publicists of russia, Georgia, Great Britain, France, Germany, the USA etc. 
Khojali refugees write in their address to the UN, European Union, Organisation on Security and Cooperation in Europe: It is already more than 10 years as we, persons become refeeges, appeal with heavy art and large hope to peaceful nations of the world, international organisations. We ask you not to remain indifferent about disaster, happened with us in result of Armenian agression. We believe that authorative international organisations like the UN, EU and OSCE, peaceful states will take measures against agression and tyranny of Armenia.
International conventions, laws, passed in the world, criticize genocides like Khojali tragedy and call them inadmissible. Azerbaijan nation has all legal base to bring suit against the Armenian republic in the International court of the UN, guiding by convention "Warning and punishment of genocide crime". The world must know this crime directed not only against Azerbaijan nation, but also whole civilized world, mankind. Persons like Seyran Ohanyan, Serj Sarkisyan, as well as Robert Kocharyan, holding high state posts at present, and others must answer before international court. 
The crime should not remained without punishment. Armenian millitary-political agression must be condemned by world community. International organizations, parlaments of the world states must give political-legal appraisal of Khojali genocide - millitary crime, commited by the Armenian Republic in the Azerbaijan territories.

Armenian terrorism or illussions break-up

 

These terrible events must get their political and legal assessment as the crime against the entire humanity. 

                                                                                                                                                                  Heydar Aliyev



-He cut the stomach of a pregnant woman and took the baby out of the flesh. Then he put the cut off head of the dead woman`s husband into her stomach and sewn it. 
-He folded the child into a green flag and poured kerosene on it and burnt it. 
-He forms the children frightened to death into the columns and tried to cut off their heads with one movement of his sword. They die with the expression of terror in their eyes. 
-the explosions in the airports, tourism bureaus, embassies, streets, business centers: dead people everywhere. Scream and blood, moaning and curses. 
He is satisfied. Is he a human being? 
To date he has a bacteriological and chemical weapons. He can even reach the nuclear weapon as well. It does not matter for him which flag and which weapon he will use in people terminating. The main thing is that he is the object of attention. 
From time to time he recalls: 1886, Geneva, under the shelter of socialism he decided to terminate Turks and Kurds in any desirable conditions. In Eastern Anatolia he killed a million of people. What caused such barbarism? The people whose blood covers him practice Islam. 
Yet that was later, the memories carry us to the times of his statement "Disappear you, Russian bitches!" through poisoning the only clear water source. Russians all covered with stinking wounds died in terrible pain. He was recalled by other people who stayed alive by some miracle as either the comer doctor or a man in a suite. By the way, he did not like the last expression as well. He wanted to be the object of attention, thus his name was mentioned in the US Boston Herald and German Forwest newspapers -yet the things do not proceed in a desirable way: the image of a man in a suite entered the mind of the people and it was necessary to push it in some other way. 
He inflicted reprisals on the duke Galitsky and committed murders in Tbilisi and Kars. For example, he merely threw bombs on the innocent people just to scare them in Baku thus attaining the following quote in one of the local newspapers: "This psychosis needs serious and immediate treatment". Once a famous Armenian quoted him as saying "I have terminated the Turkish population of Basarkechar. Yet, sometimes I regretted the bullets. The only right thing to do against these bitches is to gather those staying alive after the battle and to throw them into the specially dug holes and then to throw hard stones on them thus terminating them… I have done that: He cut off the eyes of the children and prepared a necklace" 
He committed the murders under the flag of the Tsarist Russia. Later he was near Stalin and Hitler in the 1940s later either under the revolution or the Red flag of communism. A man in a suite terminated people in the name of the said leader. Later the happy period , creating conditions for the unpunished crime commitment -the period of the post-Soviet democracy started. 
In the open announcement to the press he expressed his deep hate towards the Russians, Turkish, Swedish and French people, Americans and Arabians, as well as Englishmen, Spanish, Portuguese, Azerbaijanis, Georgians, Lezguins, Jews, Kurds, Australians, Belgians, Canadians, on the whole the Christianity, Islam and Judaism, to the NATO, to the communism and communists. Yet he killed and kills Turks under the Russian flag, Azerbaijanis on behalf of communism and democracy, Jews on behalf of Muslims, Muslims on behalf of Christians and threatens to Christians with domination of Islam 
Who is he? 
The Armenian researches of the late 19th century considered that he came from gypsies i.e. from the tribe of stony hearted -"hayk". Some European historians consider that he appeared first in the Balkan peninsula and adopted Christianity. The Christian clerks said in an answer to the question about his adoption of Christianity that he was cursed by the World Christian Assembly. Turks accepted him, gave him a land and bread. Yet he hates the Turks. Moreover, hating Russians as well he killed Turks on behalf of Russians and at the same time confessed that his future is connected with Turkey. But why is he against USA? He cooperated with the radical Muslims of the Near East, the Muslims he tried to terminate nearly a century ago and terminated them only because they were Muslims. In fact, it is not surprising as to date he is followed by young Kurds though he killed their ancestors with inhuman cruelty. 
Let`s look through his guidance issued in the 19th century. No matter which page we open we read: "Armenia is a great word, the great memory of the past and the most important element of the future. The future of the Armenians who increase in number is bright Armenians prevail over all the people surrounding them Armenian people were selected by the God "Stop. Thus, the explosions and murdered women, old people and children! For over 150 years the events have been as follows: Moscow, New York, Paris, Lisbon, Geneva, Rome, Ankara, London, Baku, Tbilisi, Istanbul, Vienna, Amsterdam, Madrid, Ottawa, Dortmund, Teheran, Sidney, Tsurich, Marcel, Belgrade, Beirut, Copenhagen, Vatican, Brussels, Frankfurt, Bonn, Milan, Bern, Athens, Lion, Luxemburg, Los-Angeles, Kislovodsk, Khodjaly, Sumgayit, Akhalkalaki, Rostov: the explosions in cinemas, airports, planes, buses, undergrounds, trains, ships and other places. 
He does not confess his struggle to pass under the slogan "For the sake of Great Armenia" and killed the people for the genocide of 1915 similar to itself thus trying to acquit his avidity. Though such people as Kaiser of Germany baron von Bulov and the leader of the world proletariat Lenin did not pay attention to such phrases, he said "if you don`t believe, you would better not engage in the Armenian matter" and did not change its positions significantly. He continued his work at his guidance, the domination over other peoples and the bloody activity believing in his special mission and special skills. 
Though Columbian drug dealer Carlos called him the small partner of drug business, through he was charged with the sales of transplanted organs of hostages and prisoners, though everyone beginning from Pushkin and up to US President R. Reagan expressed negative thoughts about him , he did not change in quality and its inner world of fights and battles remained in a similar state. Prominent Russian researchers considered that he can change outwardly. For example, he can be called Russian, Georgian, Kurdish, Arabian, Turkish, Spanish, Azerbaijani and any other names to mix with the crowd. That is the classical method of the crime. 
Despite that, his name is well-known: INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM
It should be mentioned that in accordance with the UN Convention of January 10, 2000, the world association could not put light on the concept of terrorism through all of its history. In many cases the terrorism was regarded as the self-sacrifice for freedom. Due to the difficulties in the interpretation the UN was obliged to create the systems of conventions regarding the concrete facts no matter the installation of explosives or the human trafficking, the burglary of planes. Let`s refer to the definition of the terrorism in Section 2656 f(d) of Title 22 of the US Law Code: 
The term of terrorism is the politically substantiated and purposeful violence committed by the subnational groups or secret agents against the innocent people to affect the social state. 
-The term "International Terrorism" means the terrorism that involves the citizens of a number of countries. 
-A terrorist group means any group divided into subgroups engaged in the international terrorism. 
The US government has used this definition of terrorism for some statistical and analytical purposes since 1983. 
Russian President Vladimir Putin said with the frankness peculiar to Russians: 
"That is merely an evil and we`ll have to struggle with it".
Speaking about the Armenian terrorism, it is possible to say that through it seems complicated in fact it is easy to explain. Regardless of their names the Armenians organizations considered terror as one of the means to help them achieve the goals. Moreover, within a period of several decades the members of the said organizations, that is those h
ving different thoughts and rejecting the idea of the terrorism were the victims of the Armenians terrorism. 
The researches of Armenian scientists, the speeches of the political leaders within the period of the turning point contain the critical thoughts and information on the terrorism in the activity of a number of Armenian organizations. 
The form which acquits the purpose also proved that: the crimes committed with a special cruelty to create the mass terror. As for the Armenian bands fulfilling the instructions of the terrorist organizations their definitions were given by Russian Caucasus scientists and publicists in the late 19th century. 
Member of the House of Representatives of US Congress the co-chair of the Helsinki commission H. Smith expressed the following ideas on the cooperation for combat with terrorism : "Surely, to win the war against terrorism is not possible". The victory can be gained in case of the utilization of the agreed position stipulated for the damaging the terrorism at every point. He also requested to give proposals to the representatives of the Caucasus representatives. . 
Perhaps, this issue is one of the concrete proposals for the effective struggle with international terrorism. 
It is possible to say that changing world is not able to explain the cruelty. Yet one thing is not possible-the said book will never be the call for the terror. 
The humanity is able to escape from the illusions of those who killed the pregnant women, cut off the heads of the children frightened to death and who exploded the cinemas and civil planes and fired the churches and Mosques and murdered the politicians and businessmen. 
To date the terrorism poses global thread to the holiest of the human rights-the right to Live. 
The right is worth protecting